MSc in Sustainable Energy Systems

Course Information Package

Course Unit CodeMES507
Course Unit Details
Number of ECTS credits allocated6
Learning Outcomes of the course unitBy the end of the course, the students should be able to:
  1. Identify the various wind and photovoltaic power technologies.
  2. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the key principles of operation of wind turbines and photovoltaics systems.
  3. Identify the prospects of the above renewable energy sources.
  4. Apply software tools (PSCAD) for modelling wind power and photovoltaic generation under realistic situations including transients and different air gust conditions.
  5. Identify typical industry specifications of wind turbine and photovoltaic systems.
Mode of DeliveryFace-to-face
Recommended optional program componentsNONE
Course ContentsWind
·  Introduction to wind power
-  Maximum rated power, power coefficient, average annual power from a wind turbine, wind speed relationships based on the Beaufort scale, wind turbine protection from the wind, total energy from the wind

·  Turbine types and terms
-  Names of different wind turbines.
-  Drag force, Lift force, air rotational movement, turbulence, solidity to the airstream, constant or variable frequency rotation
·  Horizontal axis machines
-  Lift dominant force, upwind and downwind turbines, single, two and three-bladed rotors

·  Vertical axis machines
-  Cap anemometer, Savonius rotor, Darieus rotor, Musgrove rotor, Evans rotor

·  Concentrators
-  Blade tips and concentrating structures

·  Linear momentum and basic theory
-  Energy extraction: Typical wind turbine characteristics, Betz model of expending airstream, Upstream, Turbine and Downstream velocities, rotor swept area, area of unperturbed wind, downwind area, thrust force, power extracted from the wind, power coefficient calculation and maximum value, plot of power coefficient versus interference factor.
-  Axial force o turbines: Bernoulli’s equation, static pressure difference, axial thrust, axial force coefficient.
-  Torque: Maximum torque, torque coefficient versus tip speed ratio
-  Drag machines: Drag coefficient, power transmitted to the flaps

·  Dynamic matching
-  Optimal rotation rate, tip speed ratio
-  Extensions of linear momentum theory

·  Blade element theory
-  Drag force, lift force

·  Characteristics of the wind
-  Basic meteorological data and wind speed time series
-  Variation with height
-  Wind speed analysis, probability and prediction
-  Wind speed probability distributions: Weibull and Rayleigh
-  Wind speed and direction variation with time
-  Postponement and capacity constraints
-  Inventories in volatile systems (high fixed costs, volatile demand, volatile prices)

·  Electricity generation
-  Basics of electricity generation
-  Classification of electricity systems using wind power
-  Electricity generation for utility grids: wind farms
-  Individual machines and integrated systems

·  Mechanical power
-  Sea transport
-  Grain milling
-  Water pumping
-  Heat production

·  Social and environmental considerations
-  Impact to the environment
-  Aesthetics
-  Noise
-  Impact on flying objects
-  Grid connection

Photovoltaics (PVs)

·  PN junction
-  Introduction: semiconductor materials and structure, conduction in semiconductors and physical characteristics
-  Generation: absorption of light / coefficient / depth, generation rate
-  Recombination: types, lifetime, diffusion length,
-  Carrier transport: movement of carriers, diffusion, drift
-  P-n junctions: P-N junction diodes, bias, diode equation, Diode equations for PV

·  Solar cell operation
-  Ideal solar cells: structure, light generated current, collection probability, quantum efficiency, spectral response
-  Solar cell parameters: IV curve, short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, efficiency, detailed balance, tandem cells
-  Resistive effects: characteristic resistance, effect of parasitic resistances, series/shunt resistance and their impact
-  Temperature effect, light intensity effect

·  Design and manufacturing of silicon cells
-  Design principles, Reducing recombination, Top contact design, Solar cell structure
-  First PV devices and early silicon solar cells, Silicon wafers and substrates, Processing technologies, Cell fabrication technologies, Solar cell production line

·  Modules and Arrays
-  Module design, Interconnection effects, Temperature effects:  module temperature, NOCT, heat loss, Lifetime

·  Characterization
-  Measurement of cell efficiency, Other IV measurements and characterization, Lifetime, Luminescence, PV system simulation

·  Grid connected and off-grid PV system considerations and design

·  Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV)

·  Hydrogen production from Photovoltaics

·  Industry specifications of PVs and selection

Recommended and/or required reading:
  • Renewable Energy Resources, 2nd Edition, John Twidell and Tony Wier, Taylor & Francis, 2006.
  • Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes, Aldo V. da Rosa, 2005, Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Renewable Energy, Bent Sorensen, 3rd Edition, Elsevier, 2004
  • Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems, Gilbert M. Masters, John Wiley & Sons, 2004
  • Sathyajith Mathew, Wind Energy, Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. KG (2006)
  • Erich Hau, Windturbines, Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. KG (2003)
  • Robert McDowall, Fundamentals of HVAC Systems, Elsevier Science & Technology (2006)
  • James B. Rishel, Ben L. Kincaid, Thomas H. Durkin, HVAC Pump Handbook, McGraw-Hill Education – Europe (2006)
  • Paul Gipe, Wind Power, James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd (2004)
  • Robert Y. Redlinger, Per Dannemand Andersen, Poul Erik Morthorst, Wind Energy in the 21st Century, Palgrave Macmillan (2001)
  • Wind Power in Power Systems, John Wiley and Sons Ltd (2005)
  • Lubosny Zbigniew, Wind Turbine Operation in Electric Power Systems, Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. KG (2003)
  • Marcelo Godoy Simoes, Renewable Energy Systems: Design and Analysis with Induction Generators, Taylor & Francis Ltd (2004)
  • Harsh K. Gupta, Sukanta Roy, Geothermal Energy, Elsevier Science & Technology (2006)
  • Heat Transfer, Oxford University Press (2004)
  • Sadik Kakac, Hongtan Liu, Liu Hongtan, Heat Exchangers, Taylor & Francis Ltd (2002)
  • T. Kuppan, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Taylor & Francis Ltd (2000)
Planned learning activities and teaching methodsThe course is presented through theoretical lectures in class. The lectures present to the student the course content and allow for questions. The material is presented using visual aids (i.e. PowerPoint presentation slides, documentaries, etc.). The aim is to familiarize the student with the different and faster pace of presentation and also allow the instructor to present related material that would otherwise be very difficult to do. A mini project, assignments and readings, which is required as part of the students assessment for the course, allows students the opportunity to carry out independent research, synthesize basic concepts presented in class, as well as hone their writing and presentation skills. Besides from the notes taken by students in class, all of the course material is made available through the class website which is available through the University’s E-learning platform (“Moodle”). The instructors are available to students during office hours or by appointment in order to provide necessary guidance. Specifically, the following homework is necessary:
•Assignments and analytical exercises on wind turbines and photovoltaic energy.
•Mini-project using simulation software PSCAD to connect a wind turbine or a photovoltaic park to the grid and analyze transient effects and stability to the grid.
•The students are expected to read and review 2-3 papers from relevant scientific journals
Assessment methods and criteria
Final Exam50%
Language of instructionEnglish
Work placement(s)NO